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Granular activated carbon (GAC) is commonly utilized in for the removal of natural constituents and residual disinfectants in water supplies to improves the taste and minimizing health hazards;It protects other water treatment elements such as RO membranes and ion change resins from doable natural fouling and damages . On account of its multi purposeful nature . Activated carbon is a favored water remedy approach and abrasive sandblasting equipment the fact that it adds nothing detrimental to the treated water.

Most activated carbons are made from raw supplies reminiscent of nutshells, coal , wood and petroleum.
The 2 fundamental principal by which activated carbon removes contaminants from water are adsorption and catalytic reduction. Organics wastes are removed by adsorption and residual disinfectants are removed by catalytic reduction.
Factors affecting the efficiency of activated carbon are:

pH:The organic removal exercise decreases with the rise in pH. Most organics compounds are less soluble and more readily adsorbed at a lower pH. . A thumb rule is to increase the carbon bed dimension by 20 percent for every pH unit above neutral .
Molecular weight:The adsorbing property of activated carbon increases with the increase in its molecular weight .. Nonetheless, the pores sizes on the surface of the carbon must be large sufficient to permit the molecules to move within. A mixture of low and high molecular weight molecules should be designed and used species troublesome to removed..
Contaminant concentration:
Higher the contaminant concentration, the better is the removal capability of activated carbon. The contaminant is more likely to be adsorbed. As concentrations enhance, nonetheless, so do effluent leakages. The upper restrict for contaminants is a few hundred PPM . Higher contaminant concentration might require further contact time with the activated carbon. Also, the organic removal is enhanced by the presence of hardness within the water, so every time possible, it is good to put activated carbon models upstream of the ion removal items
Particle dimension:
Activated carbon commonly available sizes are in 20 /50 mesh ,12 / forty mesh and eight / 30 mesh . The finer mesh gives the best contact and higher removal.
Temperature:
viscosity decreases with the increase in temperature , thereby growing adsorption rate.
Stream rate:
Typically, the lower the movement rate, the more time the contaminant will get diffuse into the pore and be adsorbed.
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